“Take up one idea. Make that one idea your life - think of it, dream of it, live on that idea. Let the brain, muscles, nerves, every part of your body, be full of that idea, and just leave every other ideas alone. This is the way to success - that is way great spiritual giants are produced.”

About Me

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Life is self-realization. Every birth is divine. We are born anew every morning. My wish is that I may catch the gleam, be freed from limitations and enter upon my boundless possibilities. My endowments are so rich and rare. There is no other person in the world just like me. I have genius, which, if it were brought forth into the sunlight, would glorify with brilliant inspiration a thousand lives. I have insight that, if it were energized, would make the desert blossom as the rose. I have initiative that once illuminated would create an empire fairer than any ever raised in marble. I have harmony lying latent in the vast octaves of my being, which if awakened into melody would sooth, comfort, restore, and purify the passions of the world. I have beauty; matchless in forms of grace, which if breathed into marble, or spread in soul colors upon the canvass would adorn the palaces of kings. I have thoughts which if given expression would burn and shine thru countless ages and bear their messages of hope and power to fainting multitudes.

Tuesday, June 7, 2011

maharatna, navratna ,miniratna:

What are Maharatna in India?

In 2009, the government established the Maharatna status, which raises a company’s investment ceiling from Rs. 1,000 crore to Rs. 5,000 crore. The Maharatna firms would now be free to decide on investments up to 15 per cent of their net worth in a project.

Earlier, the Navaratna companies could invest up to Rs 1,000 crore without government approvals.

Criteria for Maharatna

In order to qualify as a Maharatna, a company must have:

  • Three years with an annual net profit of over Rs.2500 crore
  • Net worth of Rs. 10,000 crore
  • Turnover of Rs. 20,000 crore

What are Navratna in India?

The Navratna status is offered to PSEs, which gives a company enhanced financial and operational autonomy and empowers it to invest up to Rs. 1000 crore or 15% of their net worth on a single project without seeking government approval. In a year, these companies can spend up to 30% of their net worth not exceeding Rs. 1000 cr. They will also have the freedom to enter joint ventures, form alliances and float subsidiaries abroad.

Criteria for Navratna

Navratna status is conferred by Department of Public Enterprises. To be qualified as a Navratna, the company must obtain a score of 60 (out of 100). The score is based on six parameters which include net profit to net worth, total manpower cost to total cost of production or cost of services, PBDIT (Profit Before Depreciation, Interest and Taxes) to capital employed, PBDIT to turnover, EPS (Earning Per Share) and inter-sectoral performance. Additionally, a company must first be a Miniratna and have four independent directors on its board before it can be made a Navratna.

What are Miniratnas in India?

In addition, the government created another category called Miniratna. Miniratnas can also enter into joint ventures, set subsidiary companies and overseas offices but with certain conditions. In 2002, there were 41 government enterprises that were awarded Miniratna status.

Category I

This designation applies to PSEs that have made profits continuously for the last three years or earned a net profit of Rs. 30 crore or more in one of the three years. These miniratnas granted certain autonomy like incurring capital expenditure without government approval up to Rs. 500 crore or equal to their net worth, whichever is lower.

Category II

This category include those PSEs which have made profits for the last three years continuously and should have a positive net worth. Category II miniratnas have autonomy to incurring the capital expenditure without government approval up to Rs. 300 crore or up to 50% of their net worth whichever is lower.

List of Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna CPSEs

As per available information

(as on 15th April, 2011)

Maharatna CPSEs

  1. Coal India Limited
  2. Indian Oil Corporation Limited
  3. NTPC Limited
  4. Oil & Natural Gas Corporation Limited
  5. Steel Authority of India Limited

Navratna CPSEs

  1. Bharat Electronics Limited
  2. Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited
  3. Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited
  4. GAIL (India) Limited
  5. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
  6. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited
  7. Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited
  8. National Aluminium Company Limited
  9. NMDC Limited
  10. Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited
  11. Oil India Limited
  12. Power Finance Corporation Limited
  13. Power Grid Corporation of India Limited
  14. Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Limited
  15. Rural Electrification Corporation Limited
  16. Shipping Corporation of India Limited

Miniratna Category - I CPSEs

  1. Airports Authority of India
  2. Balmer Lawrie & Co. Limited
  3. Bharat Dynamics Limited
  4. BEML Limited
  5. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
  6. Bridge & Roof Company (India) Limited
  7. Central Warehousing Corporation
  8. Central Coalfields Limited
  9. Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited
  10. Cochin Shipyard Limited
  11. Container Corporation of India Limited
  12. Dredging Corporation of India Limited
  13. Engineers India Limited
  14. Ennore Port Limited
  15. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Limited
  16. Goa Shipyard Limited
  17. Hindustan Copper Limited
  18. HLL Lifecare Limited
  19. Hindustan Newsprint Limited
  20. Hindustan Paper Corporation Limited
  21. Housing & Urban Development Corporation Limited
  22. India Tourism Development Corporation Limited
  23. Indian Railway Catering & Tourism Corporation Limited
  24. IRCON International Limited
  25. KIOCL Limited
  26. Mazagaon Dock Limited
  27. Mahanadi Coalfields Limited
  28. Manganese Ore (India) Limited
  29. Mangalore Refinery & Petrochemical Limited
  30. Mishra Dhatu Nigam Limited
  31. MMTC Limited
  32. MSTC Limited
  33. National Fertilizers Limited
  34. National Seeds Corporation Limited
  35. NHPC Limited
  36. Northern Coalfields Limited
  37. Numaligarh Refinery Limited
  38. Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited
  39. Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Limited
  40. RITES Limited
  41. SJVN Limited
  42. Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Limited
  43. South Eastern Coalfields Limited
  44. State Trading Corporation of India Limited
  45. Telecommunications Consultants India Limited
  46. THDC India Limited
  47. Western Coalfields Limited
  48. WAPCOS Limited

Miniratna Category-II CPSEs

49.Bharat Pumps & Compressors Limited

50. Broadcast Engineering Consultants (I) Limited

51. Central Mine Planning & Design Institute Limited

52. Ed.CIL (India) Limited

53. Engineering Projects (India) Limited

54. Ferro Scrap Nigam Limited

55. HMT (International) Limited

56. HSCC (India) Limited

57. India Trade Promotion Organisation

58. Indian Medicines & Pharmaceuticals Corporation Limited

59. M E C O N Limited

60. National Film Development Corporation Limited

61. National Small Industries Corporation Limited

62. P E C Limited

63. Rajasthan Electronics & Instruments Limited

British viceroys in india-

British Viceroys of India

Lord Canning History (1856 – 1862) :

  • The last Governor General and the first Viceroy.
  • Mutiny took place in his time.
  • On November, 1858, the rule passed on to the crown.
  • Withdrew Doctrine of Lapse.
  • The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were established in 1857.
  • Indian Councils Act was passed in 1861.

Lord Elgin (1862 – 1863)

Lord Lawrence (1864 – 1869) :

  • Telegraphic communication was opened with Europe.
  • High Courts were established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
  • Expanded canal works and railways.
  • Created the Indian Forest department.

Lord Mayo History (1869 – 1872) :

  • Started the process of financial decentralization in India.
  • Established the Rajkot college at Kathiarwar and Mayo College at Ajmer for the Indian princes.
  • For the first time in Indian history, a census was held in 1871.
  • Organised the Statistical Survey of India.
  • Was the only Viceroy to be murdered in office by a Pathan convict in the Andamans in 1872.

Lord Northbrook (1872 – 1876) :

Lord Lytton (1876 – 1880) :

  • Known as the Viceroy to reverse characters.
  • Organised the Grand ‘Delhi Durbar’ in 1877 to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of ‘Kaiser I Hind’.
  • Arms act (1878) made it mandatory for Indians to acquire license for arms.
  • Passed the infamous Vernacular Press act (1878).

Lord Ripon (1880 – 1884) :

  • Liberal person, who sympathized with Indians.
  • Repeated the Vernacular Press act (1882)
  • Passed the local self government act (1882)
  • Took steps to improve primary & secondary education (on William Hunter Commission’s recommendations).
  • The I Factory act, 1881, aimed at prohibiting child labour.
  • Passed the libert Bill (1883) which enabled Indian district magistrates to try European criminals. But this was withdrawn later.

Lord Dufferin (1884 – 1888) : Indian National Congress was formed during his tenure.

Lord Lansdowne (1888 – 1894) :

  • II Factory act (1891) granted a weekly holiday and stipulated working hours for women and children, although it failed to address concerns such as work hours for men.
  • Categorization of Civil Services into Imperial, Provincial and Subordinate.
  • Indian Council act of 1892 was passed.
  • Appointment of Durand Commission to define the line between British India and Afghanistan.

Lord Elgin II (1894 – 1899) : Great famine of 1896 – 1897. Lyall Commission was appointed.

Lord Curzon (1899 – 1905) :

  • Passed the Indian Universities act (1904) in which official control over the Universities was increased.
  • Partitioned Bengal (October 16, 1905) into two provinces Bengal (proper) & East Bengal & Assam.
  • Appointed a Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer to enquire into the police administration of every province.
  • The risings of the frontier tribes in 1897 – 98 led him to create the North Western Frontier Province (NWFP).
  • Passed the Ancient Monuments Protection act (1904), to restore India’s cultural heritage. Thus the Archaeological Survey of India was established.
  • Passed the Indian Coinage and Paper Currency act (1899) and put India on a gold standard.
  • Extended railways to a great extent.

History of Lord Minto (1905 – 1910) :

  • There was great political unrest in India. Various acts were passed to curb the revolutionary activities. Extremists like Lala Laipat Rai and Ajit Singh (in May, 1907) and Bal Gangadhar Tilak (in July, 1908) were sent to Mandalay jail in Burma.
  • The Indian Council act of 1909 or the Morley Minto Reforms was passed.

Lord Hardinge (1910 – 1916) :

  • Held a durbar in December, 1911 to celebrate the coronation of King George V.
  • Partition of Bengal was cancelled (1911), capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911).
  • A bomb was thrown at him; but he escaped unhurt (December 23, 1912).
  • Gandhiji came back to India from South Africa (1915).
  • Annie Besant announced the Home Rule Movement.

Lord Chelmsford (1916 – 1921) :

  • August Declaration of 1917, whereby control over the Indian government would be gradually transferred to the Indian people.
  • The government of India act in 1919 (Montague Chelmsford reforms) was passed.
  • Rowlatt act of 1919; Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919).
  • Non Cooperation Movement.
  • An Indian Sir S.P.Sinha was appointed the Governor of Bengal.
  • A Women’s university was founded at Poona in 1916.
  • Saddler Commission was appointed in 1917 to envisage new educational policy.

Lord Reading (1921 – 1926) :

  • Rowlatt act was repeated along with the Press act of 1910.
  • Suppressed non – cooperation movement.
  • Prince of Wales visited India in November, 1921.
  • Moplah rebellion (1921) took place in Kerala.
  • Ahmedabad session of 1921.
  • Formation of Swaraj Party.
  • Vishwabharati University started functioning in 1922.
  • Communist part was founded in 1921 by M.N. Roy.
  • Kakory Train Robbery on August 9, 1925.
  • Communal riots of 1923 – 25 in Multan, Amritsar, Delhi, etc.
  • Swami Shraddhanand, a great nationalist and a leader of the Arya Samajists, was murdered in communal orgy.

Lord Irwin (1926 – 1931) :

  • Simon Commission visited India in 1928.
  • Congress passed the Indian Resolution in 1929.
  • Dandi March (March 12, 1930).
  • Civil Disobedience Movement (1930).
  • First Round Table Conference held in England in 1930.
  • Gandhi Irwin Pact (March 5, 1931) was signed and Civil Disobediance Movement was withdrawn.
  • Martydorm of Jatin Das after 64 days hunger strike (1929).

Lord Willington (1931 – 1936) :

  • Second Round Table conference in London in 1931.
  • On his return Gandhiji was again arrested and Civil Disobedience Movement was resumed in January, 1932.
  • Communal Awards (August 16, 1932) assigned seats to different religious communities. Gandhiji went on a epic fast in protest against this division.
  • Third Round Table conference in 1932.
  • Poona Pact was signed.
  • Government of India act (1935) was passed.

Lord Linlithgow (1936 – 1944) :

  • Government of India act enforced in the provinces. Congress ministries formed in 8 out of 11 provinces. They remained in power for about 2 years till October 1939, when they gave up offices on the issue of India having been dragged into the II World War. The Muslim League observed the days as ‘Deliverance Say’ (22 December)
  • Churchill became the British PM in May, 1940. He declared that the Atlantic Charter (issued jointly by the UK and US, stating to give sovereign rights to those who have been forcibly deprived of them) does not apply to India.
  • Outbreak of World War II in 1939.
  • Cripps Mission in 1942.
  • Quit India Movement (August 8, 1942).

Lord Wavell (1944 – 1947) :

  • Arranged the Shimla Conference on June 25, 1945 with Indian National Congress and Muslim League; failed.
  • Cabinet Mission Plan (May 16, 1946).
  • Elections to the constituent assembly were held and an Interim Government was appointed under Nehru.
  • First meeting of the constituent assembly was held on December 9, 1946.

Lord Mountbatten (March 1947 – August 1947) :

  • Last Viceroy of British India and the first Governor General of free India.
  • Partition of India decided by the June 3 Plan.
  • Indian Independence Act passed by the British parliament on July 4, 1947, by which India became independent on August 15, 1947.
  • Retried in June 1948 and was succeeded by C. Rajagopalachari (the first and the last Indian Governor General of free India)

Dances of India:

Folk Dances

Folk Dances of Central India:

• Gaur Dance: Madhya Pradesh

• Muria Dances: Chattisgarh (Har Endanna, Hulki Dance, Karsana Dance)

• Saila Dance: Chattisgarh(Sarguja) and MP(Betul) . A stick dance

• Karma Dance: Gonds & Baigas of Chattisgarh, Oraons of Madhya Pradesh

• Kaksar Dance: Abhujmaris of Bastar

• Pandavani: Chattisgarh

• Lota: Pandvani

Folk Dances of East India:

• Chhau: Bihar

• Brita Dance: West Bengal

• Kali Dance: West Bengal

• Dalkhai: Orissa (Sambalpur). Chaiti Ghora is a dummy horse version of the

Dalkhai dance and is popular in fishing communities.

• Goti Puas: Orissa. The credit of popularizing this dance goes to Ramchandradev,

the Rajaof Khurd (Orissa).

Folk Dances of North East India:

• Bihu: Assam

• Hajgiri: Tripura

• Nongkrem: Meghalaya

• Dhol-Cholom: Manipur

• Sattriya: Assam

Folk Dances of North India:

• Dumhal: Jammu & Kashmir

• Hikat: Himachal Pradesh.

• Natio: Group of dances performed during Kullu Dussehra festival.

• Namagen: Himachal Pradesh. Famous amongt Gaddi tribe.

• Hurka Baul: Uttaranchal. Kumaon region. Performed during cultivation of paddy

and maize. The drum used is called Hurka.

• Jhumeila: Uttaranchal

• Chaufula: Uttaranchal (Garwal)

• Chholiya: Kumaon, Uttaranchal

• Bhangra: Punjab

• Luddi: Punjab

• Gidha: Punjab

• Jhoomer: Punjab

• Dhamyal or Dhup: Haryana

Folk Dances of South India:

• Padayani: Kerala

• Kummi: Tamilnadu

• Kolattam: Andhra Pradesh & Tamilnadu (Also known as Kolannalu or


Perini: Andhra Pradesh

Thapetta Gullu: Andhra Pradesh

Folk Dances of South West India

• Dollu Kunitha: Karnataka

• Ghode Modni: Goa

• Lava Danceof Minicoy: Lakshadweep

• Tarangmel: Goa

Folk Dances of Western India:

• Dandiya: Rajasthan

• Ghumer Dance, Raika Dance, Jhoria Dance: Rajasthan. Performed by Bhil tribe.

• Gher Dance: Mina tribe of Rajasthan

• Valar Dance: Garasias of Rajasthan

• Tera Tali: Rajasthan (Kamar Tribe)

• Dindi and Kala: Maharashtra (Devotional)

• Garba: Gujarat (Fertility Cult)

• Garbi: A form of Garba where men perform the dance

• Tippani: Saurashtra

• Dhangari Gaja: Dhangars of Maharashtra

• Koli: Koli Tribe of Maharashtra

Classical Dances:

• Bharatnatyam - Tamil Nadi

• Kathak - UP

• Kathakali - Kerala

• Kuchipudi - Andhra Pradesh

• Manipuri - Manipur

• Mohiniattam - Kerala

• Odissi - Orissa

• Sattriya - Assam

Ordinary bill and money bill:

Ordinary Bills

1. Articles 107 and 108 deal with ordinary bills.

2. An Ordinary Bill can be introduced in any of the Houses of Parliament.

3. An Ordinary Bill can be introduced without the recommendation of the President

4. A Dead lock may occur.

5. A Joint Session of Houses may be called to resolve the Dead lock.

6. When a Bill is passes in one House, and it is sent to the other House for passing, the other House may keep that Bill for 6 months with it.

7. The House has to oblige the recommendations of the other House. If not, Dead lock arises.


Money Bills

1. Articles 109 and 110 deal with Money Bills.

2. A Money Bill can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha. It can not be introduced in Rajya Sabha.

3. The Money Bill can be introduced with the recommendation of the President..

4. No dead lock occurs.

5. No Joint Session of House necessary.

6. A Money Bill is passed by Lok Sabha. Thereafter it is sent to Rajya Sabha for recommendations. Rajya Sabha must return it within 14 days, with or without recommendations.

7. Lok Sabha may consider or may not consider the recommendations of the Rajya Sabha pertaining to Money Bills.

8. Whether it is a Money Bill or not, the Speaker has to give a certificate and shall be endorsed only it.9. The President may either give or withhold his assent to a Money Bill. A Money Bill can not be returned to the House by the President for reconsideration.


** the budget can be discussed early in rajya sabha


** A Bill undergoes three readings in each House, i.e. the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, before it is submitted to the President for assent


** Constitution Amendment Bills can be introduced in either House of Parliament.


*** Like Money Bills, Bills which, inter alia, contain provisions for any of the matters attracting sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 110 can also not be introduced in Rajya Sabha.

missile program of india-

Here is the list of Missiles available in the armory of India.


Air-to-air missiles


Anti Ballistic Missiles'

Prithvi Air Defence Missile (Exo-atmospheric Anti-ballistic missile)

Advanced Air Defense Missile (Endo-atmospheric Anti-ballistic missile)


Surface-to-surface missiles

Short Range Ballistic Missiles

Prithvi I

Prithvi II

Prithvi III


Agni I


Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles




Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles

Agni V

Surya(under development/not confirmed)

Cruise Missiles

Subsonic Cruise Missiles


Supersonic Cruise Missiles


Hypersonic Cruise Missiles

BrahMos II

Submarine Launched Ballistic Missiles

K-15 Sagarika



Surface-To-Air Missiles





Guided Missiles

Anti-Tank Guided Missiles

Nag Anti-tank guided missile

Helina Air launched Anti-tank missile

ICAR Awards:

  1. Sardar Patel Outstanding ICAR Institution Award
  2. Choudhary Devi Lal Outstanding All-India Coordinated Research Project Award
  3. Rafi Ahmed Kidwai Award
  4. Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Award for Tribal Areas
  5. Hari Om Ashram Trust Award
  6. Jawaharlal Nehru Award
  7. Vasantrao Naik Award
  8. Lal Bahadur Shastri Young Scientist Award
  9. Bharat Ratna Dr. C Subramaniam Outstanding Teacher Award
  10. Punjab Rao Deshmukh Woman Agricultural Scientist Award
  11. Chaudhary Charan Singh Award for Excellence in Journalism in Agricultural Research and Development
  12. N.G. Ranga Farmer Award for Diversified Agriculture
  13. Jagjivan Ram Kisan Puruskar
  14. Swamy Sahajanand Saraswati Extension Scientist /Worker Award
  15. ICAR Award for Outstanding Multidisciplinary Team Research in Agriculture and Allied Sciences
  16. National Krishi Vigyan Kendra Award ICAR
  17. Dr. Rajendra Prasad Puruskar for Technical Books in Hindi in the Field of Agriculture and Allied Sciences

Key features of NREGA

  • 1. Eligibility: Any person who is above the age of 18 and resides in rural areas is entitled to apply for work.

  • 2. Entitlement: Any applicant is entitled to work within 15 days, for as many as he/she has applied, subject to a limit of 100 days per household per year.

  • 3. Distance: Work is to be provided within a radius of 5 kilometres of the applicant’s residence if possible, and in any case within the Block. If work is provided beyond 5 kilometres, travel allowances have to be paid.

  • 4. Wages: Workers are entitled to the statutory minimum wage applicable to agricultural labourers in the state, unless and until the Central Government “notifies” a different wage rate. If the Central Government notifies, the wage rate is subject to a minimum of Rs. 60 per day.

  • 5. Timely payment: Workers are to be paid weekly, or in any case not later than a fortnight. Payment of wages is to be made directly to the person concerned in the presence of independent persons of the community on -pre-announced dates.

  • 6. Unemployment allowance: If work is not provided within 15 days, applicants are entitled to an unemployment allowance: one third of the wage rate for the first thrity days, and one half thereafter.

  • 7. Worksite facilities: Labourers are entitled to various facilities at the worksite such as clean drinking water, shade for periods of rest, emergency health care, and child-minding.

Employment guarantee scheme

  • 1. Employment Guarantee Scheme: Each state government has to put in place an “Employment Guarantee Scheme” within six months of the Act coming into force.

  • 2. Permissible works: A list of permissible works is given in Schedule I of the Act. These are concerned mainly with water conservation, minor irrigation, land development, rural roads, etc. However, the Schedule also allows “any other work which may be notified by the Central Government in consultation with the State Government”.

  • 3. Programme Officer: The Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme is to be coordinated at the Block level by a “Programme Officer”. However, the Act allows any of his/her responsibilities to be delegated to the Gram Panchayats.

  • 4. Implementing agencies: REGS works are to be executed by “implementing agencies”. These include, first and foremost, the Gram Panchayats (they are supposed to implement half of the REGS works), but implementing agencies may also include other Panchayati Raj Institutions, line departments such as the Public Works Department or Forest Department, and NGOs.

  • 5. Contractors: Private contractors are banned.

  • 6. Decentralised planning: A shelf of projects is to be maintained by the Programme Officer, based on proposals from the implementing agencies. Each Gram Panchayat is also supposed to prepare a shelf of works based on the recommendations of the Gram Sabha.

  • 7. Transparency and accountability: The Act includes various provisions for transparency and accountability, such as regular social audits by the Gram Sabhas, mandatory disclosure of muster rolls, public accessibility of all REGS documents, regular updating of job cards, etc.

Other provisions

  • 1. Participation of women: Priority is to be given to women in the allocation of work, “in such a way that at least one-third of the beneficiaries shall be women”.

  • 2. Penalties: The Act states that “whoever contravenes the provisions of this Act shall on conviction be liable to a fine which may extend to one thousand rupees”.

  • 3. State Council: The implementation of the Act is to be monitored by a “State Employment Guarantee Council”.

  • 4. Cost sharing: The Central Government has to pay for labour costs and 75% of the material costs. State governments have to pay the unemployment allowance and 25% of the material costs.

  • 5. Time frame: The Act is to come into force initially in 200 districts, and is to be extended to the whole of rural India within five years of its enactment.